In order to understand infrared, it is important to understand something about light. The human eye can detect only a tiny part of the electromagnetic spectrum, called visible light. But there are other forms of light around us such as ultraviolet and infrared. Infrared (IR) light is also a very small part of the entire electromagnetic spectrum and requires a specific device or technology to see it with our eyes.
The 3 Categories of Infrared Light
Infrared light can be split into three categories; near-infrared (near-IR), mid-infrared (mid-IR) and thermal-infrared (thermal-IR). The key difference between thermal-IR and the other two is that thermal-IR is emitted by an object instead of reflected off it. Infrared imaging works two different ways depending on the device or technology used; image enhancement and thermal imaging.
Image enhancement is what most people think of when you talk about night vision. This technology works by collecting tiny amounts of visible light including the lower portion of the infrared light spectrum. This light would be undetectable to our eyes before it is amplified through the night vision device.
How Thermal Imaging Works
Thermal imaging works by capturing the upper portion of the infrared light spectrum which is emitted as heat by objects. Hot objects such as body heat emit more of this light than cooler objects like trees or buildings. Thermal imaging devices capture this heat and transfer it into an image on a monitor. When viewed in a gray scale, hotter things appear white and cooler things appear black. A thermal imaging device transforms thermal energy into visible light with five basic steps:
- A special lens focuses the infrared light emitted by all of the objects in view.
- Infrared detectors are then used to scan this focused radiation. The detectors create what is called a thermogram or temperature map.
- The thermogram is then translated into electric impulses.
- The electric impulses are then sent to a signal-processing unit where they are translated into data. The signal-processing unit is a tiny chip that is embedded on a circuit board which is used to translate the electric impulses into usable data.
- Once translated, the signal-processing unit sends the data to the display where it then becomes visible to the viewer.
How night vision and image enhancement work
The objective lens (1) of a night vision device collects light (visible and IR) that can’t be seen with the naked eye and focuses it on the image intensifier (7). The power supply (4) for the image-intensifier tube receives power from two “AA” batteries. Inside the image intensifier a photocathode (2) absorbs this light energy and converts it to electrons. These electrons are then drawn toward a phosphor screen (5). In 2nd and 3rd generation intensifiers the electrons first pass through a micro-channel plate (3) that further multiplies them thousands of times. When this highly intensified electron image strikes the phosphor screen (5), it causes the screen to emit visible light. Since the phosphor screen emits this light in exactly the same pattern and contrast as collected by the objective lens, the bright night time image seen through the eyepiece (6) corresponds precisely to the observed scene. These phosphors create the green image on the screen that has come to characterize night vision.
Night Vision Generation 1
Typically uses an S-20 photocathode and electron acceleration to achieve gain. Night vision generation 1 devices perform best when ambient light (moonlight or starlight) or sufficient IR illumination is available. Geometric distortion (fish-eye effect) is inherent in all Gen 1 devices. Life span of a Gen 1 tube (image intensifier) is approximately 1500 hours of continuous operation.
Night Vision Generation 2
Usually uses an S-25 (extended red of the electromagnetic spectrum) photocathode plus a microchannel plate to achieve gain. Night vision generation 2 devices provide better than-satisfactory performance at low light levels and exhibit very low distortion. Life span of a Gen 2 tube is approximately 2500-3000 hours of continuous operation.
Night Vision Generation 3
The most advanced level of night vision technology, night vision generation 3 devices use gallium-arsenide for the photocathode near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum) and a micro-channel plate for gain. The microchannel plate is also coated with an ion barrier film to prolong tube life. Gen 3 provides very good-to-excellent performance in extreme low light levels. Recent Military Specification quality tubes have no perceptible distortion. Life span of a Gen 3 tube is 10,000+ hours of continuous operation.
At the present US Armed forces are issued Night Vision Devices with expanded sensitivities in the deep IR range. On a limited basis, these technologies are beginning to become available commercially for civilians.
JAGER PRO has access to this equipment to introduce infrared technology into the hog control and shooting industry.
Important JAGER PRO Product Note:
Manufacturer data sheets which guarantee a minimum resolution of 64 lp/mm are included with JAGER PRO night vision devices configured with Gen 3 US SELECT “A” image intensifiers.
Users have difficult choices to make among Night Vision Generations of technology (Gen 1, Gen 2 or Gen 3) or among competing options within a given generation.
Evaluation of night vision equipment revolves around four major areas of consideration:
Clarity of a night vision device image under varying light conditions. Performance is a product of image intensifier photosensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio, system gain and resolution.
Issues such as ease of operation, size, weight, technique of employment and use of necessary or optional accessories are critical.
Selecting the right night vision device for the right application. Important considerations are versatility, adaptability, field of view, magnification, weather resistance and ruggedness of the system.
Overall Cost of Ownership:
Users should consider such issues as optional accessories, expected tube life, warranty coverage, ease and likelihood of repair, susceptibility to bright light exposure and availability of batteries.
Contact JAGER PRO for assistance in evaluating night vision equipment.
Image Tube Grades
When buying night vision equipment you should be advised of the different grades of image tubes. You should not buy a 2nd or 3rd Generation night vision device without knowing the grade and resolution of the Image Tube. The lower the grade the lower the resolution or the greater the blemishes.
Black spots are cosmetic blemishes in the image intensifier which do not affect the performance or reliability of a night vision device. Some number of varying sizes is inherent in the manufacturing process.
2D – Gen 2 US Image Intensifier – Minimum resolution 28 lp/mm (32 lp/mm typical) Noticeable blemishes on screen.
2ST – Gen 2 Standard US Image Intensifier – Minimum resolution 28 lp/mm
2MS – Gen 2 Military Spec US Image Intensifier – Minimum resolution 28-38 lp/mm (32 lp/mm typical) Mil-Spec comes with tube data sheet.
2HD – Gen 2 US Image Intensifier – Minimum resolution 51-70 lp/mm Above Mil-Spec comes with tube data sheet.
3ST – Gen 3 Standard US Image Intensifier – Minimum resolution 51-64 lp/mm.
3A – Gen 3 Advanced US Image Intensifier – Minimum resolution 64-72 lp/mm comes with tube data sheet.
Thermal Terminology (A-E)
An electronic feature that automatically reduces voltages to the micro-channel plate to keep the image intensifier’s brightness within optimal limits and protect the tube.
The effect of this can be seen when rapidly changing from low-light to high-light conditions; the image gets brighter and then, after a momentary delay, suddenly dims to a constant level.
When the power supply is “auto-gated,” it means the system is turning itself on and off at a very rapid rate. This, combined with a thin film attached to the micro-channel plate (an ion barrier) reduces blooming. While “blooming” can be noticeably less on systems with a thin film layer, systems with thicker film layers can be perfectly acceptable depending on the end user’s application. Deciding which night vision goggle is better should not be based solely on blooming.
These are common blemishes in the image intensifier of the NVD or can be dirt or debris between the lenses of the NVG. Black spots that are in the image intensifier do not affect the performance or reliability of a night vision device and are inherent in the manufacturing processes. Every night vision image intensifier tube is different.
These can be defects in the image area produced by the NVG. This condition is caused by a flaw in the film on the micro-channel plate. A bright spot is a small, non-uniform, bright area that may flicker or appear constant. Bright spots usually go away when the light is blocked out and are cosmetic blemishes that are signal induced.
Viewing a single image source with both eyes.
Viewing a scene through two channels; i.e. one channel per eye.
Loss of the entire night vision image, parts of it, or small parts of it, due to intensifier tube overloading by a bright light source. Also, known as a “halo” effect, when the viewer sees a “halo” effect around visible light sources. When such a bright light source comes into the night vision device’s view, the entire night vision scene, or parts of it, become much brighter, “whiting out” objects within the field of view. Blooming is common in Generation 0 and 1 devices. The lights in the image to the right would be considered to be “blooming”.
An electronic function that reduces the voltage to the photocathode when the night vision device is exposed to bright light sources such as room lights or car lights. BSP protects the image tube from damage and enhances its life; however, it also has the effect of lowering resolution when functioning.
The alignment of a weapon aiming device to the bore of the weapon. See also Zeroing.
A standard still and video camera lens thread size for mounting to the body of a camera. Usually 1/2″ or 3/4″ in diameter.
A term used to describe image tube quality, testing and inspection done by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM).
An irregular pattern of dark thin lines in the field of view either throughout the image area or in parts of the image area. Under the worst-case condition, these lines will form hexagonal or square wave-shape lines.
Usually made of soft plastic or rubber with a pinhole that allows a small amount of light to enter the objective lens of a night vision device. This should be used for training purposes only, and is not recommended for an extended period of time.
A glass filter assembly designed to fit over the objective lens of a night vision device. The filter reduces light input to a safe (night-time) level, allowing safe extended daytime use of the night vision device.
The unit of measure used to define eye correction or the refractive power of a lens. Usually, adjustments to an optical eyepiece accommodate for differences in individual eyesight. Most ITT systems provide a +2 to -6 diopter range.
There are two types of distortion found in night vision systems. One type is caused by the design of the optics, or image intensifier tube, and is classical optical distortion. The other type is associated with manufacturing flaws in the fiber optics used in the image intensifier tube.
Classical Optical Distortion:
Classical optical distortion occurs when the design of the optics or image intensifier tube causes straight lines at the edge of the field of view to curve inward or outward. This curving of straight lines at teh edge will cause a square grid pattern to start to look like a pincushion or barrel. This distortion is the same for all systems with the same model number. Good optical design normally makes this distortion so low that the typical user will not see the curving of the lines.
Fiber Optics Manufacturing Distortions:
Two types of fiber optics distortions are most significant to night vision devices: S-distortion and shear distortion:
- S-Distortion: Results from the twisting operation in manufacturing fiber-optic inverters. Usually S-distortion is very small and is difficult to detect with the unaided eye.
- Shear Distortion: Can occur in any image tube that use fiber-optic bundles for the phospor screen. It appears as a cleavage or dislocation in a straight line viewed in the image area, as though the line were “sheared”.
This is the amount of light you see through a night vision device when an image tube is turned on but no light is on the photocathode. EBI is affected by temperature; the warmer the night vision device, the brighter the background illumination. EBI is measured in lumens per square centimeter (lm/cm2). The lower the value the better. The EBI level determines the lowest light level at which an image can be detected. Below this light level, objects will be masked by the EBI.
There is a defect in the image area of the NVG. Edge glow is a bright area (sometimes sparkling) in the outer portion of the viewing area.
A steady or fluctuating pinpoint of bright light in the image area that does not go away when all light is blocked from the objective lens. The position of an emission point within the field of view will not move. If an emission point disappears or is only faintly visible when viewing under brighter nighttime conditions, it is not indicative of a problem. If the emission point remains bright under all lighting conditions, the system needs to be repaired. Do not confuse an emission point with a point of light source in the scene being viewed.
The distance a person’s eyes must be from the last element of an eyepiece in order to achieve the optimal image area.
Thermal Terminology (F-G)
The diameter of the imaged area when viewed through an optic.
Image Intensification tube specification designation, calculated on line pair per mm x signal to noise.
A faint hexagonal (honeycomb) pattern throughout the image area that most often occurs under high-light conditions. This pattern is inherent in the structure of the micro-channel plate and can be seen in virtually all Gen 2 and Gen 3 systems if the light level is high enough.
A unit of brightness equal to one foot candle at a distance of one foot.
Also called brightness gain or luminance gain. This is the number of times a night vision device amplifies light input. It is usually measured as tube gain and system gain. Tube gain is measured as the light output (in footLambert) divided by the light input (in foot candle). This figure is usually expressed in values of tens of thousands. If tube gain is pushed too high, the tube will be “noisier” and the signal-to-noise ration many go down. U.S. military Gen 3 image tubes operate at gains of between 20,000 and 45,000. On the other hand, system gain is measured as the light output (fL) divided by the light input (also fL) and is what the user actually sees. System gain is usually seen in the thousands. U.S. military systems operate at 2,000 to 3,000. In any night vision system, the tube gain is reduced by the system’s lenses and is affected by the quality of the optics or any filters. Therefore, system gain is a more important measurement to the user.
The semiconductor material used in manufacturing the Gen 3 photocathode. GaAs photocathodes have a very high photosensitivity in the spectral region of about 450 to 950 nanometers (visible and near-infrared region).
Two technologies are referenced as night vision; image intensification and thermal imaging (see definitions). Because of cost and the fact that image intensifier scenes are easier to interpret than thermal (thermal images show targets as black or white – depending upon temperature – making it more difficult to recognize objects), the most widely used night vision aid in law enforcement is image intensification (l²) equipment. To date, there have been four generations of l² devices, identified as Gen 0, Gen 1, Gen 2, and Gen 3. Developmental laboratory work is on-going, and the U.S. military may designate the resulting as Gen 4. However, no definition for Gen 4 presently exists.
The first night vision aids (also called Generation Zero or Gen 0) were sniper scopes that came into use during World War II and the Korean conflict. These were not true image intensifiers, but rather image converters, which required a source of invisible infrared (IR) light mounted on or near the device to illuminate the target area.
The “starlight scopes” developed during the early 1960’s for use in Vietnam were the first Generation (Gen 1) of image intensifier devices. In Gen 1 night vision units, three image intensifiers were connected in a series, making the units longer and heavier than future night vision units would be. Gen 1 equipment produced an image that was clear in the center of the field of view but suffered from large optical distortion around the periphery. Gen 1 equipment was also subject to “blooming”. Most low-cost imported night vision units use Gen 1 technology, though often under the guise of a higher “generation”.
The development of the micro-channel plate, or MCP, in the late 1960s brought on the second generation (Gen 2) in l² night vision. The MCP accelerated and multiplied electrons which provided the gain previously supplied by coupling three image intensifiers together (Gen 1). The introduction of the MCP significantly reduced size and weight for image intensifier tubes, enabling design of smaller night vision goggles and hand-held devices. The MCP also provided much more robust operation when bright lights entered the field of view. The Gen 2 tubes used the same tri-alkali photocathode as the Gen 1 devices. This generation was implemented to reflect the change in how the light was amplified (MCP versus three-stage coupling).
Third-generation (Gen 3) image intensifiers were developed in the mid-1970s and became available during the early 1980s. Gen 3 introduced two major technological improvements: the gallium arsenide (GaAs) photocathode and the ion barrier coating to the microchannel plate. The GaAs photocathode increases the tube’s sensitivity to light from the near-infrared range of the spectrum, enables it to function at greater detection distances, and improves system performance under low-light conditions. Application of a metal-oxide ion barrier to the MCP increases the life of the image tube. The operational life of Gen 3 tubes is in excess of 10,000 hours, compared to that of Gen 2 tubes which is about 2,000 to 4,000 hours. This generation was implemented to reflect the change in the photocathode (tri-alkali replaced with GaAs).
Gated Filmless Technology
Gated filmless technology was created in 1998, but without the reliability required for military delivery. By removing the ion barrier film and “gating” the system power supply, the technology demonstrated substantial increases in target detection range and resolution. In the process, however, it was discovered by ITT, that the same performance results could be achieved using a Generation 3 tube, but with a thinner ion barrier film and a auto-gated power supply, without sacrificing reliability and life-span of the intensifier tube.
Thermal Terminology (H-R)
An image intensifier protection feature incorporating a sensor, microprocessor and circuit breaker. This feature will turn the system off during periods of extreme bright light conditions.
The distance between the user’s eyes (pupils) and the adjustment of binocular optics to adjust for differences in individuals. Improperly adjusted binoculars will display a scene that appears egg-shaped or as a reclining figure-8.
The distance between the user’s pupils (eyeball centres). The 95th percentile of US military personnel falls within the 55 to 72mm range of IPD.
Many night vision devices incorporate a built-in infrared (IR) diode that emits invisible light or the illuminator can be mounted on to it as a separate component. IR light cannot be seen by the unaided eye; therefore, a night vision device is necessary to see this light. IR Illuminators provide supplemental infrared illumination of an appropriate wavelength, typically in a range of wavelengths (e.g. 730nm, 830nm, 920nm), and eliminate the variability of available ambient light, but also allow the observer to illuminate only specific areas of interest while eliminating shadows and enhancing image contrast.
Regardless of generation all image intensifiers require some light to function. In situations where ambient light is insufficient, infrared (IR) illuminators facilitate night operations by providing an independent source of light. Since IR illuminators operate in near infrared range of 700 to 900 nanometers (nm), they are invisible to the naked eye.
High-power devices providing long-range illumination capability. Ranges of several thousand meters are common. Most are not eye-safe and are restricted in use. Each IR laser should be marked with a warning label like the one shown here. Consult FDA CFR Title 21 for specific details and restrictions.
Collects and intensifies the available light in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. Offers a clear, distinguishable image under low-light conditions.
IR (Infrared) Area outside the visible spectrum that cannot be seen by the human eye (between 700 nanometers and 1 millimeter). The visible spectrum is between 400 and 700 nanometers.
Lp/mm (Line Pairs per Millimeter) Units used to measure image intensifier resolution. Usually determined from a 1951 U.S. Air Force Resolving Power Test Target. The target is a series of different-sized patterns composed of three horizontal and three vertical lines. A user must be able to distinguish all the horizontal and vertical lines and the spaces between them. Typically, the higher the line pair, the better the image resolution. Generation 3 tubes generally have a range of 64 – 72 lp/mm, although line pair measurement does not indicate the generation of the tube. Some Generation 2+ tubes measure 28-38 lp/mm, while a Generation 1+ tube may have measure at 40 lp/mm.
Denotes the photons perceptible by the human eye in one second.
A single channel optical device.
The measure of electrical current (mA) produced by a photocathode when exposed to a specified wavelength of light at a given radiant power (watt).
A metal-coated glass disk that multiplies the electrons produced by the photocathode. An MCP is found only in Gen 2 or Gen 3 systems. MCPs eliminate the distortion characteristic of Gen 0 and Gen 1 systems. The number of holes (channels) in an MCP is a major factor in determining resolution. ITT Industries’ MCPs have 10.6 million holes or channels compared to the previous standard of 3.14 million.
The shortest wavelengths of the infrared region, nominally 750 to 2,500 nanometers.
The input surface of an image intensifier tube that absorbs light energy (photons) and in turn releases electrical energy (electrons) in the form of an image. The type of material used is a distinguishing characteristic of the different generations.
Photocathode sensitivity is a measure of how well the image intensifier tube converts light into an electronic signal so it can be amplified. The measuring units of photocathode sensitivity are micro-amps/lumen (µA/lm) or microamperes per lumen. This criterion specifies the number of electrons released by the Photocathode (PC). PC response is always measured in isolation with no amplification stage or ion barrier (film). Therefore, tube data sheets (which always carry this “raw” figure) do not reflect the fact that over 50% of those electrons are lost in the ion barrier. While for most latest 3rd generation image intensifiers the photoresponse is in the 1800 µA/lm (2000 µA/lm for the latest Omni VI Pinnacle tubes), the actual number is more like 900 µA/lm.
The ability of an image intensifier or night vision system to distinguish between objects close together. Image intensifier resolution is measured in line pairs per millimetre (lp/mm) while system resolution is measured in cycles per miliradian. For any particular night vision system, the image intensifier resolution will remain constant while the system resolution can be affected by altering the objective or eyepiece optics by adding magnification or relay lenses. Often the resolution in the same night vision device is very different when measured at the centre of the image and at the periphery of the image. This is especially important for devices selected for photograph or video where the entire image resolution is important. Measured in line pairs per millimetre (lp/mm).
An adjustable aiming point or pattern (i.e. crosshair) located within an optical weapon sight.
Thermal Terminology (S-Z)
A measure of the light signal reaching the eye divided by the perceived noise as seen by the eye. A tube’s SNR determines the low-light-resolution of the image tube; therefore, the higher the SNR, the better the ability of the tube to resolve objects with good contrast under low-light conditions. Because SNR is directly related to the photocathode’s sensitivity and also accounts for phosphor efficiency and MCP operating voltage, it is the best single indicator of an image intensifier’s performance.
Also known as electronic noise. A faint, random, sparkling effect throughout the image area. Scintillation is a normal characteristic of micro-channel plate image intensifiers and is more pronounced under low-light-level conditions.
The image tube output that produces the viewable image. Phosphor (P) is used on the inside surface of the screen to produce the glow, thus producing the picture. Different phosphors are used in image intensifier tubes, depending on manufacturer and tube generation. P-20 phosphor is used in the systems offered in this catalogue.
When two views or photographs are taken through one device. One view/photograph represents the left eye, and the other the right eye. When the two photographs are viewed in a stereoscopic apparatus, they combine to create a single image with depth and relief. Sometimes this gives two perspectives. However, it is usually not an issue because the object of focus is far enough away for the perspectives to blend into one.
Equal to tube gain minus losses induced by system components such as lenses, beam splitters and filters.
Allows the user to manually adjust the gain control (basically like a dim control) in varying light conditions. This feature sets the PVS-14 apart from other popular monoculars that do not offer this feature.
A US weapon mounting system used for attaching sighting devices to weapons. A Weaver Rail is a weapon-unique notched metal rail designed to receive a mating throw-lever or Weaver Squeezer attached to the sighting device.
A method of bore sighting an aiming device to a weapon and adjusting to compensate for projectile characteristics at known distances.